The Mongol Empire existed during the 13th and 14th centuries, it rose in the space of about 80 years to be the largest contiguous land empire in history. Originating in the steppes of Central Asia, the Mongol Empire stretched from Central Europe to the Sea of Japan, extending northwards into Siberia, eastwards and southwards into the Indian subcontinent, Indochina, and the Iranian plateau, and westwards as far as the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean) and Arabia.

The empire unified Mongol and Turkic tribes of historical Mongolia under the leadership of Genghis Khan, who was proclaimed ruler of all Mongols in 1206. The empire grew rapidly under his rule and then under his descendants, who expanded in every direction. The vast transcontinental empire connected the east with the west with an enforced Pax Mongolica allowing trade, technologies, commodities, and ideologies to be disseminated and exchanged across Eurasia.

The Great Khan Rulers 
Year Ruler
1206–1227 Genghis Khan
1229–1241 Ögedei Khan son of Genghis
1246–1248 Güyük Khan son of Ogedei
1251–1259 Möngke Khan cousin of Ogrdei
1260–1294 Kublai Khan
1333–1370 Toghan Temür Khan

Mongol conquests resulted in some of the most destructive wars in human history. In Iran, the Mongol invasion resulted in extermination, disease, and destruction of irrigation systems resulting in mass emigration, famine, and drastic population decline. 

The empire began to split due to wars over succession, as the grandchildren of Genghis Khan disputed whether the royal line should follow from his son and initial heir Ögedei, or one of his other sons such as Tolui, Chagatai, or Jochi. The Toluids prevailed after a bloody purge of Ögedeid and Chagataid factions, but disputes continued even among the descendants of Tolui. After Möngke Khan died, rival kurultai councils simultaneously elected different successors, the brothers Ariq Böke and Kublai Khan, who then not only fought each other in the Toluid Civil War, but also dealt with challenges from descendants of other sons of Genghis. Kublai successfully took power, but civil war ensued as Kublai sought unsuccessfully to regain control of the Chagatayid and Ögedeid families.

The Battle of Ain Jalut (the Spring of Goliath) in 1260 marked the high-water point of the Mongol conquests and was the first time a Mongol advance had ever been beaten back in direct combat on the battlefield. Though the Mongols launched many more invasions into the Levant, briefly occupying it and raiding as far as Gaza after a decisive victory at the Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar in 1299, they withdrew due to various geopolitical factors.

By the time of Kublai's death in 1294, the Mongol Empire had fractured into four separate khanates or empires, each pursuing its own separate interests and objectives: the Golden Horde khanate in the northwest; the Chagatai Khanate in the west; the Ilkhanate in the southwest; and the Yuan Dynasty based in modern-day Beijing. In 1304, the three western khanates briefly accepted the nominal suzerainty of the Yuan Dynasty, but when it was overthrown by the Han Chinese Ming Dynasty in 1368, the Mongol Empire finally dissolved.

Date Event
1206 Genghis Khan proclaims the "Great Mongol State"
1227 Death of Genghis Khan
1210–1350 Stability under Pax Mongolica
1259 Mongke's death, Civil war and Kublai Khan
1260 The Battle of Ain Jalut (between Muslim Mamluks and the Mongols in the southeastern Galilee)
1260–1264 Mongol Empire fragments
1299 Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar
1368 Fall of Yuan dynasty
1687 Collapse of the Chagatai Khanate 10/5/14 12/13/14