The Fourfold Gospel

four gospel synoptic parallel

Based on work by Alexander Campbell
(Adapted from http://www.bible.ca/b-four-gospel-synoptic.htm )

The story of the life and ministry of Jesus is told in the Gospel accounts from four different perspectives.  The story is actually continued in the book of Acts and so some extent in the epistles.  Over the centuries men have tried to combine these views into one story.  This is an example of one such effort.  Because the Gospels do not have the events all events in the life of Jesus in the same order or tell the story in exactly the same way it is sometimes dificult to tell wheter the different gospel reports are of the same event.  (As with the Sermon on the Mount in Matthew and the Sermon on the Plain in Luke.)

This table is helpful to find parallel accounts in the various Gospels but it should be noted that many of the details of the outline are more a matter of opinion than hard fact.  Still it is useful to compare what can be found in the different gospel accounts.     

  Matthew Mark Luke John
I The Period of Christ's Life Prior to His Ministry        
    1. Luke's Preface and Dedication     1:1-4  
    2. John's Introduction - The Geneology of the Son of God       1:1-18
    3. Genealogy of Jesus According to Matthew - Royal line through Joseph 1:1-17      
    4. Genealogy According to Luke - Human line through Mary     3:23-38  
    5. Annunciation to Zacharias of the Birth of John the Baptist     1:5-25  
    6. The Annunciation (to Mary of the Birth of Jesus)     1:26-38  
    7. Mary, Future Mother of Jesus, Visits Elisabeth, Future Mother of John the Baptist     1:39-56  
    8. The Birth and Early Life of John the Baptist     1:57-80  
    9. The announcment to Joseph of the Birth of Jesus 1:18-25      
    10. The Birth of Jesus     2:1-7  
    11. The Birth of Jesus Proclaimed by Angels to the Shepherds     2:8-20  
    12. Circumcision, Temple Service, and Naming of Jesus     2:21-39  
    13. Eastern Wise-Men or Magi Visit Jesus, the New-born King 2:1-12      
    14. Flight into Egypt and Slaughter of the Bethlehem Children 2:13-18      
    15. The Child Jesus Brought from Egypt to Nazareth 2:19-23   2:39  
    16. Jesus Living at Nazareth and Visiting Jerusalem in His Twelfth Year     2:40-52  
II Beginning of the Ministry of John the Baptist, the Forerunner        
    1. John the Baptist's Person and Preaching 3:1-12 1:1-8 3:1-18  
    2. John's First Testimony to Jesus       1:19-34
III Beginning of Our Lord's Ministry        
    1. Jesus Baptized by John in the Jordan 3:13-17 1:9-11 3:21,22  
    2. Jesus Tempted in the Wilderness 4:1-11 1:12,13 4:1-13  
    3. Jesus Makes His First Disciples       1:35-51
    4. Jesus Works His First Miracle at Cana in Galilee       2:1-11
    5. Jesus' First Residence at Capernaum       2:12
IV From the First to the Second Passover        
    1. Jesus Attends the First Passover of His Ministry        
        A. Jesus Cleanses the Temple       2:13-25
        B. Jesus Talks with Nicodemus       3:1-21
    2. First Ministry in Judea--John's Second Testimony       3:22-36
    3. Jesus Sets out from Judea to Galilee        
        A. Reasons for Retiring to Galilee 4:12 1:14 3:19,20 4:1-4
        B. The Samaritan Woman at Jacob's Well       4:5-42
        C. Arrival in Galilee     4:14 4:43-45
    4. General Account of Jesus' Teaching 4:17 1:14,15 4:14,15  
    5. The Second Miracle at Cana       4:46-54
    6. Jesus' Temporary Residence at Capernaum 4:13-16      
    7. Jesus Calls Four Fishermen to Follow Him 4:18-22 1:16-20 5:1-11  
    8. Healing a Demoniac in a Synagogue   1:21-28 4:31-37  
    9. Healing Peter's Mother-in-Law and Many Others 8:14-17 1:29:34 4:38-41  
    10. Jesus Makes a Preaching Tour Through Galilee 4:23-25 1:35-39 4:42-44  
    11. Jesus Heals a Leper and Creates Much Excitement 8:2-4 1-40-45 5:12-16  
    12. Jesus Heals a Paralytic at Capernaum 9:2-8 2:1-12 5:17-26  
    13. The Call of Matthew 9:9 2:13,14 5:27,28  
V From Second Passover Until Third.         
    1. Jesus Heals on the Sabbath Day and Defends His Act       5:1-47
    2. Jesus Defends Disciples Who Pluck Grain on the Sabbath 12:1-8 2:23-28 6:1-5  
    3. Jesus Defends Healing a Withered Hand on the Sabbath 12:9-14 3:1-6 6:6-11  
    4. Jesus Heals Multitudes Beside the Sea of Galilee 12:13-21 3:7-12    
    5. After Prayer Jesus Selects Twelve Apostles 10:2-4 3:13-19 6:12-16  
    6. The Sermon on the Mount and the Sermon on the Plain*        
        A. Introduction 5:1-2   6:17-20  
        B. Beatitudes: Promises to Messiah's Subjects 5:3-12   6:20-26  
        C. Influence and Duties of Messiah's Subjects 5:13-16      
        D. Messianic Teaching to Traditional Teaching 5:17-48   6:27-30, 32-36  
        E. Almsgiving, Prayer and Fasting to Be Performed Sincerely, Not Ostentatiously 6:1-18      
        F. Security of Heavenly Treasures Contrasted with Earthly Anxieties 6:19-34      
        G. Law Concerning Judging 7:1-6   6:37-42  
        H. Concerning Prayer 7:7-11      
        I. The Golden Rule 7:12   6:31  
        J. The Two Ways and the False Prophets 7:13-23   6:43-45  
        K. Conclusion and Application: Two Builders 7:24-29   6:46-49  
    7. Healing the Centurion's Servant 8:1,5-13   7:1-10  
    8. Jesus Raises the Widow's Son     7:11-17  
    9. The Baptist's Inquiry and Jesus' Discourse Suggested Thereby 11:2-30   7:18-35  
    10. Jesus' Feet Anointed in the House of a Pharisee     7:36-50  
    11. Further Journeying About Galilee     8:1-3  
    12. Blasphemous Accusations of the Jews 12:22-37 3:19-30 11:14-23  
    13. Sign Seekers, and the Enthusiast Reproved 12:38-50   11:24-36  
    14. Christ's Teaching as to His Mother and Brethren 12:46-50 3:31-35 8:19-21  
    15. Dining with a Pharisee, Jesus Denounces That Sect     11:37-54  
    16. Concerning Hypocrisy, Worldly Anxiety, Watchfulness and His Approaching Passion     12:1-59  
    17. Parable of the Barren Fig-Tree     13:1-9  
    18. The First Great Group of Parables - Kingdom Parables        
        A. Introduction 13:1-3 4:1,2 8:4  
        B. Parable of the Sower 13:3-23 4:3-25 8:5-18  
        C. Parable of the Seed Growing of Itself   4:26-29    
        D. The Parable of the Weeds 13:24-30      
        E. Parables of the Mustard Seed and Leaven 13:31-35 4:30-34    
        F. The Parable of the Weeds Explained 13:36-43      
        G. Parables of Treasure, Pearl and Net 13:44-53      
    19. Jesus Calms the Storm 8:18-27 4:35-41 8:22-25  
    20. Jesus Heals Two Gergesene Demoniacs 8:28-34; 9:1 5:1-21 8:26-40  
    21. Matthew's Feast. Discourse on Fasting 9:10-17 2:15-22 5:29-39  
    22. Jairus' Daughter and the Invalid Woman 9:18-26 5:22-43 8:41-56  
    23. Healing Blind Men and a Dumb Demoniac 9:27-34      
    24. Jesus Visits Nazareth and is Rejected 13:54-58 6:1-6 4:16:31  
    25. Third Circuit of Galilee. The Twelve Instructed and Sent Forth 9:35-38; 10:1,5:4, 11:1 6:6-13 6:6-13  
    26. Herod Antipas Supposes Jesus To Be John 14:1-12 6:14-29 9:7-9  
    27. First Withdrawal from Herod's Territory and Return        
        A. Return of the Twelve and Retirement to the East Shore of Galilee 14:13 6:30-32 9:10 6:1
        B. Feeding the Five Thousand 14:13-21 6:33-44 9:11-17 6:2-14
        C. The Twelve Try to Row Back. Jesus Walks Upon the Water 14:22-36 6:45-56   6:15-21
    28. Discourse on Spiritual Food and True Discipleship. Peter's Confession       6:22-71
VI From the Third Passover Until Our Lord's Arrival at Bethany        
    1. Jesus Fails to Attend the Third Passover 15:1-20 7:1-23   7:1
    2. Second Withdrawal from Herod's Territory 15:21 7:24    
    3. Healing a Phoenician Woman's Daughter 15:22-28 8:25-30    
    4. Another Avoiding of Herod's Territory 15:29 8:31    
    5. The Deaf Stammerer Healed and Four Thousand Fed 15:30-38 8:32-9:9    
    6. Third Withdrawal from Herod's Territory        
        A. Pharisaic Leaven. A Blind Man Healed 15:39- 16:12 8:10-26    
        B. The Great Confession Made by Peter 16:13-20 8:27-30 9:18-21  
        C. Jesus Predicts His Death. Peter Rebuked 16:21-28 8:31-39; 9:1 9:22-27  
        D. The Transfiguration 17:1-13 9:2-13 9:28-36  
        E. Healing the Demoniac Boy 17:14-20 9:14-29 9:37-43  
    7. Return to Galilee. The Passion Foretold 17:22,23 9:30-32 9:43-45  
    8. Jesus Pays the Tribute Money 17:24-27      
    9. False Ambition Versus Childlikeness 18:1-14 9:33-50 9:46-50  
    10. Sin and Forgiveness Between Brothers 18:15-35      
    11. Jesus' Brothers Advise Him to Go to Judea       7:2-9
    12. The Private Journey to Jerusalem     9:51-56 7:10
    13. As to Sacrifice for Christ's Service     9:57-62  
    14. In the Temple at the Feast of Tabernacles       7:11-52
    15. The Story of the Adulteress       7:53- 8-11
    16. Messianic Claims Met by Attempt to Stone Jesus       8:12-59
    17. Contention Over the Man Born Blind       9:1-41
    18. Discourse on the Good Shepherd       10:1-21
    19. Mission and Return of the Seventy     10:1-24  
    20. Parable of the Good Samaritan     10:25-37  
    21. Jesus the Guest of Martha and Mary     10:38-42  
    22. Prayer Taught and Encouraged     11:1-13  
    23. Sabbath Healing. Mustard Seed and Leaven     13:10-21  
    24. Feast of Dedication. The Jews Attempt to Stone Jesus and He Retires to Peraea       10:22-42
    25. The Strait Gate. Warned Against Herod     13:22-35  
    26. Dining with a Pharisee. Sabbath Healing and Three Lessons Suggested by the Event     14:1-24  
    27. Cost of Discipleship Must Be Counted     14:25-35  
    28. Second Great Group of Parables        
        A. Introduction     15:1,2  
        B. Parable of the Lost Sheep     15:3-7  
        C. Parable of the Lost Coin     15:8-10  
        D. Parable of the Lost Son     15:11-32  
        E. Parable of the Unrighteous Steward     16:1-18  
        F. Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus     16:19-31  
        G. Concerning Offenses, Faith and Service     17:1-10  
    29. Peraea to Bethany. Raising of Lazarus       11:1-46
    30. Retiring Before the Sanhedrin's Decree       11:47-54
    31. Journey to Jerusalem. Ten Lepers. Concerning the Kingdom     17:11-37  
    32. Parable of the Persistant Widow     18:1-8  
    33. Parable of the Pharisee and Publican     18:9-14  
    34. Journey to Jerusalem. Concerning Divorce 19:1-12 10:1-12    
    35. Blessing Children. Concerning Childlikeness 19:13-15 10:13-16 18:15-17  
    36. The Rich Ruler. Peril of Riches. Reward of Sacrifice. Parable of the Laborers in the Vineyard 19:16- 20:16 10:17-31 18:18-20  
    37. Foretelling His Passion. Rebuking Ambition 20:17-28 10:32-45 18:31-34  
    38. Bartimaeus and His Companion Healed 20:29-34 10:46-52 18:35-43  
    39. Zacchaeus. Parable of the Pounds. Journey to Jerusalem     19:1-28  
VII Last Week of Our Lord's Ministry. The Fourth Passover. The Crucifixion.        
    1. Jesus Arrives and Is Feasted at Bethany 26:6-13 14:3-9   11:55-57
    2. Jesus' Triumphal Entry into Jerusalem 21:1-12, 14-17 11:1-11 19:29-44 12:12-19
    3. Barren Fig-Tress. Temple Cleansed 21:18,19,12,13 11:12-18 19:45-48  
    4. Finding the Fig-Tree Withered 21:20-22 11:19-25 21:37,38  
    5. In Reply to the Questions as to His Authority, Jesus Gives the Third Great Group of Parables        
        A. Introduction 21:23-27 11:27-33 20:1-8  
        B. Parable of the Two Sons 21:28-32      
        C. Parable of the Wicked Husbandmen 21:33-46 12:1-12 20:9-19  
        D. Parable of the Marriage of the King's Son 22:1-14      
    6. Jewish Rulers Seek to Ensnare Jesus        
        A. Pharisees and Herodians Ask About Tribute 22:15-22 12:13-17 20:20-26  
        B. Sadducees Ask About the Resurrection 22:23-33 12:18-27 20:27-39  
        C. A Lawyer Asks About the Great Commandment 22:34-40 12:28-34 20:40  
        D. Jesus' Question Which None Could Answer 22:41-46 12:35-37 20:41-44  
    7. Jesus' Last Public Discourse. Denunication of Scribes and Pharisees 23:1-39 12:38-40 20:45-47  
    8. Observing the Offerings and Widow's Mites   12:41-44 21:1-4  
    9. Greeks Seek Jesus. He Foretells That He Shall Draw All Men unto Him       12:20-50
    10. Destruction of Jerusalem Foretold 24:1-28 13:1-23 21:5-24  
    11. The Second Coming of Christ 24:29-51 13:24-37 21:25-37  
    12. Conclusion of Our Lord's Discourse. Parable of Virgins and Talents. Final Judgment. 25:1-46      
    13. Jesus Predicts, the Rulers Plot for and Judas Bargains for His Death 26:1-5, 14-16 14:1,2, 10,11 22:1-6  
    14. Preparation for Passover. Disciples Contend for Precedence 26:17-20 14:12-17 22:7-18, 24-30  
    15. The Paschal Meal. Jesus Washes the Disciples' Feet       13:1-20
    16. Judas' Betrayal and Peter's Denial Foretold 26:21-25, 31-35 14:18-21, 27-31 22:21-23, 31-38 13:21-38
    17. The Lord's Supper Instituted (I Cor. 11:23-26) 26:26-29 4:22-25 22:19,20  
    18. Farewell Discourse to Disciples       14:1- 16:33
    19. The High Priestly Prayer       17:1-26
    20. Going to Gethsemane, and Agony Therein 26:30, 36-40 14:26, 32-42 22:39-46 18:1
    21. Jesus Betrayed, Arrested and Forsaken 26:47-56 14:43-52 22:47-53 18:2-11
    22. First Stage of Jewish Trial. Examination by Annas       18:12-14, 19-23
    23. Second Stage of Jewish Trial. Jesus Condemned by Ciaphas and the Sanhedrin 26:57, 59-68 14:53, 55-65 22:54, 63-65 18:24
    24. Peter Denies the Lord 26:58, 69-75 14:54, 66-72 22:54-62 18:15-18, 25-27

    25. Third Stage of Jewish Trial. Jesus Formally Condemned by the Sanhedrin and Led to Pilate

27:1,2 15:1 22:66- 23:1 18.28

    26. First Stage of the Roman Trial. Jesus Before Pilate for the First Time

27:11-14 15:2-5 23:2-5 18:28-38

    27. Second Stage of the Roman Trial. Jesus Before Herod Antipas.

    23:6-12  

    28. Third Stage of the Roman Trial - Pilate Reluctantly Sentences Him to Crucifixion

27:15-30 15:6-19 23:13-25 18:39- 19:16

    29. Remorse and Suicide of Judas (Acts 1:18,19)

27:3-10      

    30. The Crucifixion

       

        A. On the Way to the Cross

27:31-34 15:20-23 23:26-33 19:17

        B. Jesus Crucified and Reviled. His Three Sayings During First Three Hours

27:35-44 15:24-32 23:33-43 19:18-27

        C. Darkness Three Hours, After Four More Sayings, Jesus Expires. Strange Events Attending His Death

27:45-56 15:33-41 23:44-49 19:28-30

        D. Jesus Found to Be Dead. His Body Buried and Guarded in the Tomb

27:57-66 16:42-47 23:50-56 19:31-42
VIII Our Lord's Resurrection, Appearances and Ascension. Judaea and Galilee. Time, Forty Days.         

    1. Angels Announce the Resurrection to Certain Women. Peter and John Enter the Empty Tomb

28:1-8 16:1-8 24:1-8, 12 20:1-10

    2. First and Second Appearances of the Risen Christ. The Resurrection Reported to the Apostles

28:9,10 17:9-11 24:9-11 20:11-18

    3. Some of the Guards Report to the Jewish Rulers

28:11-15      

    4. Third and Fourth Appearances of Jesus (I Cor. 15:5)

  16:12,13 24:13-35  

    5. Fifth Appearance of Jesus

  16:14 24:36-43 20:19-25

    6. Sixth Appearance of Jesus (I Cor. 15:5)

      20:26-31

    7. Seventh Appearance of Jesus

      21:1-25

    8. Eighth Appearance of Jesus (I Cor. 15:6)

28:16,17      

    9. The Great Commission Given

28:18-20 16:15-18 24:46,47  

    10. Ninth and Tenth Appearances of Jesus (I Cor. 15:7; Acts 1:3-8)

    24:44-49  

    11. The Ascension (Acts 1:9-12)

  16:19,20 24:50-53  

    12. Our Lord Appears After His Ascension (I Cor. 15:8)

       

 Alexander Campbell (12 September 1788 – 4  March 1866) was an early leader in the Second Great Awakening.  His  particular bit was what is called the Restoration Movement, or Stone-Campbell  Movement. (There are also other movements that are called the restoration  movement, but this is the main one.)  The Campbell wing of the movement was  said to begin with his father Thomas Campbell.  They were both from as  Scottish Presbyterian background.  Several American church groups trace their history to the Campbells' leadership, including the Churches of Christ,  the Christian churches and churches of Christ, Evangelical Christian Church in  Canada, and the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). Alexander Campbell is  also the founder of Bethany College in Bethany, West Virginia.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Campbell_(clergyman) 12/11/11

http://www.cccdisciples.org/ACampbell.html 12/11/11


The Annunciation is the name given to the story of the angel visit to Mary as recorded in Luke's Gospel.  The name comes from the anglicised passage in the Latin Vulgate Annuntiatio nativitatis Christi (Luke 1:26-39).  Gabriel told Mary to name her son Jesus, meaning "Saviour". The Feast of the Annunciation on March 25, which is nine full months before Christmas, the ceremonial birthday of Jesus.  According to Luke 1:26, the Annunciation occurred "in the sixth month" of Elizabeth's pregnancy with John the Baptist.  

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annunciation 1/1/14


 *The sermon on the Mount (Matthew) and the Sermon on the Plain (Luke) are two quite similar sermons that were delivered by our Lord.  The majority of the Sermon on the Plain has parallel passages within the Sermon on the Mount and in most cases they are in a similar order in both. Many think that these are different accounts of the same sermon as in Campbell's original harmony.  There are actually three common explanations for this similarity:

  1. the Sermon on the Plain is Luke's summary of the Sermon on the Mount;
  2. the Sermon on the Mount is Matthew's expansion of the Sermon on the Plain;
  3. the two sermons were given on different occasions but Jesus reused material.

If we believe that these are separate sermons, Luke sets the Sermon on the Plain somewhat later in Jesus' ministry than Matthew sets the Sermon on the Mount.  I have kept Campbell's chronology intact because my purpose here has more to do with parallel passages than establishing a correct chronology.  I happen to believe number 3 above. 

There are of course those who think that the synoptic gospels are based on a lost gospel called Q.  Q is supposed to be a collection of the sayings of Jesus that was used to compile the Gospels.  Q is more a concept than a document and since there are no copies it is difficult for me to say much more.  It is not difficult for scholars to say volumes but then every body needs a hobby.

http://www.sermononthemount.org.uk/Bible/Luke6v20_49.html 1/1/14