The Vulgate

Over time the Western Church, by and large, lost its facility in Greek and was relying on varying Latin translations of the early Christian writings. (There are as many or more Latin manuscripts as there are Greek manuscripts of the Bible, the extant Latin manuscripts are a significant witness to the Biblical text.) In about 382, in the interest of getting everyone on the same page so to speak Pope Damasus I commissioned Jerome to update and/or standardize the Latin Bibles that were then in use. The result is what we now call the Vulgate. In my youth I was taught that the name Vulgate came from vulgar Latin, with vulgar having the meaning of common, a significantly different meaning that it has today. The more scholarly explanation is that it takes its name from the phrase versio vulgata, "the common or popular version" or perhaps "the translation made public."

The Vulgate was a departure from the earlier efforts as it used the Hebrew scriptures for the basis of the translation rather than the Greek Septuagent. About 405 A.D., Jerome completed the protocanonical books (the Jewish Tanakh) of the Old Testament from the Hebrew, and the deuterocanonical books of Tobias and Judith from the Aramaic. Some claim that Jerome was forced by the Pope to translate the deuterocanonical books, but he would not have had them in the Hebrew scriptures of the Jews. The remainder of the version was translated from Greek and/or revised from some of the earlier Latin versions. 

There are 73 books in the Vulgate Bible (not counting 3 in the Apocrypha), 46 in the Old Testament and 27 in the New. The Vulgate was the basis for the Gutenberg Bible. It remained most popular in the Roman Church and when they issued a complete English translation, the Douay Rheims, it was based on the Vulgate. The Douay Rheims New Testament dates from 1582 and the Old Testament from 1610. I read somewhere that the Latin was thought by Rome to be a purer tradition than the Greek at the time. The King James version was issued in 1611 and subsequently revised. The table below shows the book names from the vulgate, Douay Rheims and King James translations. The books or parts of books in italics in the King James column indicate the writings that are collected into the Apocrypha in the King James Bibles we have today. There were only the three books in the Apocrypha of the Vulgate.

Vetus Testamentum - Old Testament

VulgateDouay RheimsKing James Bible
Genesis Genesis Genesis
Exodus Exodus Exodus
Leviticus Leviticus Leviticus
Numeri Numbers Numbers
Deuteronomium Deuteronomy Deuteronomy
Josue Josue Joshua
Judices Judges Judges
Ruth Ruth Ruth
1 Samuelis also known as 1 Regum 1 Kings 1 Samuel
2 Samuelis also known as 2 Regum 2 Kings 2 Samuel
3 Regum 3 Kings 1 Kings
4 Regum 4 Kings 2 Kings
1 Paralipomenon 1 Paralipomenon 1 Chronicles
2 Paralipomenon 2 Paralipomenon 2 Chronicles
1 Esdrae 1 Esdras Ezra
Nehemiae also known as 2 Esdrae 2 Esdras Nehemiah
Tobiae Tobias Tobit
Judith Judith Judith
Esther Esther Esther and the Rest of Esther
Job Job Job
Psalmi Psalms Psalms
Proverbia Sentences Proverbs
Ecclesiastes Ecclesiastes Ecclesiastes
Canticum Canticorum Canticle of Canticles Song of Solomon
Sapientiae Wisdom Wisdom
Ecclesiasticus Ecclesiasticus Ecclesiasticus
Isaiae Isaias Isaiah
Jeremiah Jeremias Jeremiah
Lamentationes Lamentations Lamentations
Baruch Baruch Baruch and the Epistle of Jeremy
Ezechielis Ezechiel Ezekiel
Danielis Daniel Daniel,  Song of the Three Children, Story of Susanna, and The Idol Bel and the Dragon
Osee Osee Hosea
Joel Joel Joel
Amos Amos Amos
Adiae Adias Obadiah
Jonae Jonas Jonah
Michaeae Michaeas Micah
Nahum Nahum Nahum
Habacuc Habacuc Habakkuk
Sophoniae Sophonias Zephaniah
Aggaei Aggaeus Haggai
Zachariae Zacharias Zechariah
Malachiae Malachias Malachi
1 Machabaeorum 1 Machabees 1 Maccabees
2 Machabaeorum 2 Machabees 2 Maccabees

Novum Testamentum - New Testament

VulgateDouay RheimsKing James Bible
secundum Matthaeum Matthew Matthew
secundum Marcum Mark Mark
secundum Lucam Luke Luke
secundum Ioannem John John
Actus Acts Acts
ad Romanos Romans Romans
1 ad Corinthios 1 Corinthians 1 Corinthians
2 ad Corinthios 2 Corinthians 2 Corinthians
ad Galatas Galatians Galatians
ad Ephesios Ephesians Ephesians
ad Philippenses Philippians Philippians
ad Colossenses Colossians Colossians
1 ad Thessalonicenses 1 Thessalonians 1 Thessalonians
2 ad Thessalonicenses 2 Thessalonians 2 Thessalonians
1 ad Timotheum 1 Timothy 1 Timothy
2 ad Timotheum 2 Timothy 2 Timothy
ad Titum Titus Titus
ad Philemonem Philemon Philemon
ad Hebraeos Hebrews Hebrews
Jacobi James James
1 Petri 1 Peter 1 Peter
2 Petri 2 Peter 2 Peter
1 Ioannis 1 John 1 John
2 Ioannis 2 John 2 John
3 Ioannis 3 John 3 John
Judae Jude Jude
Apocalypsis Apocalypse Revelation


VulgateDouay RheimsKing James Bible
Oratio Manassae regis Prayer of Manasses Prayer of Manasses
3 Esdrae 3 Esdras 1 Esdras
4 Esdrae 4 Esdras 2 Esdras