Herodotus (c. 484–425 BC) is strictly speaking not a philosopher (even though you could have arrived here from the philosopher page). He is often called the "Father of History" because, it is said, that he was the first to actually make an organized study of events and try to tell the story of what caused them. 

Herodotus was born in about 485 BC in the Greek city of Halicarnassus, a commercial center on the southwestern coast of Asia Minor. He came from a wealthy and cosmopolitan Greek-Carian merchant family. (The Carians, of Minoan descent, had arrived in that part of Asia Minor before the Greeks had.) In the middle of the 6th century BC, Halicarnassus became a satrapy, or province, of the Persian Empire and was ruled by the tyrant Lygdamis. Herodotus' family opposed Lygdamis' rule and was sent into exile on the island of Samos.

Instead of settling in one place, Herodotus spent his life traveling from one Persian territory to another. He crossed the Mediterranean to Egypt and traveled through Palestine to Syria and Babylon. He headed to Macedonia and visited all the islands of the Greek Archipelago: Rhodes, Cyprus, Delos, Paros, Thasos, Samothrace, Crete, Samos, Cythera and Aegina. He sailed through the Hellespont to the Black Sea and kept going until he hit the Danube River. While he traveled, Herodotus collected what he called "autopsies," or "personal inquiries": He listened to myths and legends, recorded oral histories and made notes of the places and things that he saw.

When Herodotus was not traveling, he returned to Athens; there, he became something of a celebrity. He gave readings in public places and collected fees from officials for his appearances. In 445 BC, the people of Athens voted to give him a prize of 10 talents–almost $200,000 in today's money–to honor him for his contributions to the city's intellectual life. Herodotus spent his entire life working on just one project: an account of the origins and execution of the Greco-Persian Wars (499–479 B.C.) that he called The Histories (τε Ἱστορίαι). The Greek word "historie" actually means means "inquiry" and our use of the word history is due to Herodotus.  He published this work sometime around the year 425 BC. There are nine volumes. He wrote The Histories "in the hope of thereby preserving from decay the remembrance of what men have done, and of preventing the great and wonderful actions of the Greeks and the Barbarians from losing their due meed of glory; and withal to put on record what were the grounds of their feud."

The excerpt linked below is from the Hillsdale College Western Heritage class. As that course was more to do with the history of the governments in the west than the theological aspects of ancient life in ancient Greece. We do see that they are trying to come to grips with what the best sort of government would be. In all of it the controling idea is more to do whith the honor and honesty of those invalved that the actual forms.

see Excerpt from The Histories

 

 

https://online.hillsdale.edu/file/Herodotus-The-History.pdf 11/27/17

http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/herodotus 11/27/17