Protestant Confessions

Five Solas

  1. Sola Scriptura -- Scripture alone
  2. Solus Christus -- Christ alone,
  3. Sola Gratia -- grace alone,
  4. Sola Fide -- faith alone, and
  5. Soli Deo Gloria to the glory of God alone.

From the protestant perspective, the Reformation was a struggle to recover the essentials of the Christian faith that are taught in scripture (Sola scriptura in the five solas at right.). The notion was that the real message of Christianity had been buried under various layers of tradition, ritual and politics (the other box on this page). The Reformation actually started a discussion much of which continues today. Sometimes we rather smugly think that by this point in history we have finally got it right, but that is almost certainly not the case as this sort of confessionizing continues, although this page stops at 1983. Many struggles of this sort have plagued the Church over time and indeed all of mankind since the beginning. In addition to recovering the gospel, the other result of the reformation was the eventual separation of church and state. We see this story develope too as we go down the table. When Constantine "Christianized" the Roman Empire, the government and the Church became intertwined and that became a struggle for both. We see that many of these confessions were acts of different legislative bodies, this is because religious tolerance was not in vogue at the time. Through time, though consensus was not reached on theological matters but peace was. On the theology side several attempts were made to collect and harmonize all of the views and I have shaded some of those in the table. 

For Constantine and those that followed him a united Christianity was thought to be necessary. The Creeds, as ordinarily defined, were an attempt to find that common Christianity and distill it into an easy to remember statement. We see on the creeds page that this sort of idea was actually older than the Church Councils. Through the time of the Ecumenical/Imperial Councils agreement was not universally accepted and there were groups departing from what was we now to be consider orthodoxy all along the way. Politics did not help things then as it did not help during the Reformation. So, when Luther tacked up his theses we got a theological discussion with political overtones. Zwingli had to go to the town council, and that was the point of his 67 theses, in order to depart from the prescribed order.

We note here that there were some 1200 years between Constantine and Luther which is ample time for the creativity of man to creep in to things. Rome had fallen in 476 and the Church had stepped in to unite Christendom (in the West.) There were 500 years between the fall of Rome and Luther's 95 theses where the Roman Catholic Church was the political power in much of Europe. Those years were not peaceful either. (Muslim conquest of Spain beginning circa 711 followed by the reconquiata beginning in 722. The Crusades from 1096-1291.)

Some General points of the Reformation:

  • Definition of the Church
  • Role of Government in matters of Faith
  • Role of the Pope
  • Definition of the sacraments/ordinances

The Reformers set what they called biblical faith over against that of Roman Catholic tradition and the Papal Magisterium. Pointing to the Bible as the exclusive source of doctrine as opposed to the acts of various councils and canon law. To do this they had to articulate their understanding of biblical teaching. In this sense, the Reformation confessions were a natural flowering of the Protestant commitment to the Bible. This is not to say the the Roman Church of the day had no commitment to the Bible, but tradition had, according to the Reformers, in some sense eclipsed it. 

Tradition is a hard thing to overcome. This, I think, is part of the division between Calvin and Luther. Luther, and the Lutherans, remained quite Catholic and Luther was the singular voice of the Lutheran reformation. What we often call the reformed tradition today did not have a single voice but rather a debate among many. We see this in the various "councils" in the Reformed tradition. There were also the Anabaptist an other more radical reform groups who were generally not tolerated even by other protestants. They aslo shapped the debate.

As the Reformation spread across Europe the local dukes saw the fracturing of the Church as an opportunity to assert their own autonomy against the Holy Roman Empire. It seems an over simplification to say that "countries" were united by their religious affiliation because that too changed over time. The state/monarch had much to say about the religion of the people who lived there. That is why there are national confessions listed in the table below. The list is likely not complete as I add things when I find them. We see something of the history of the Reformation moving across Europe in the table. Each area had its own struggle.


Date Title Tradition Comment
529 The Canons of the (second) Council of Orange Catholic/Orthodox Really nothing to do with the Reformation or Reformed Churches. The council was to do with Pelagian or Semi-Pelagian theology. The notion that man could be good on his own. The canons highlight the importance of grace in salvation. Sola Gratia in the five solas above.
- 1806

The Holy Roman Empire. Began when Pope Leo III gave Charlemagne that title Holy Roman Emperor in an attempt to revive the Roman Empire in the West. It occupied varying territory generally centered around present day Germany and France. 

This body which called itself and which still calls itself the Holy Roman Empire was in no way holy, nor Roman, nor an empire. - Voltaire (1694 – 1778)

1517 Luther's 95 Theses Lutheran Not really a confession or creed, but rather an invitation for a theological debate. He got much more than he was intending. That debate rages until today.
1523 Zwingli's 67 Articles Reformed Even before Luther tacked up his 95 theses in 1517, Zwingli was openly opposing pilgrimages and indulgences, aspects of the then current Roman Catholic tradition. These 67 Articles were the basis for the debate in front of the Zurich town council.
1524 - 1525 The German Peasant's War was Europe's largest and most widespread popular uprising prior to the French Revolution of 1789. The fighting was at its height in the middle of 1525.

The war began with separate insurrections, beginning in the southwestern part of what is now Germany and Alsace, and spread in subsequent insurrections to the central and eastern areas of Germany and present-day Austria. After the uprising in Germany was suppressed, it flared briefly in several Swiss Cantons.

1527 The Schleitheim Confession  Anabaptist

Schleitheim is a municipality in the canton of Schaffhausen in Switzerland, located directly at the border to Germany. The Schleitheim Confession was the most representative statement of Anabaptist principles, endorsed unanimously by a meeting of Swiss Anabaptists.

The Confession consisted of seven articles, written during a time of severe persecution:

  1. Baptism is administered to those who have consciously repented and amended their lives and believe that Christ has died for their sins and who request it for themselves. Infants, therefore, were not to be baptized.
  2. The Ban (Excommunication) A Christian should live with discipline and walk in the way of righteousness. Those who slip and fall into sin should be admonished twice in secret, but the third offense should be openly disciplined and banned as a final recourse. This should always occur prior to the breaking of the bread.
  3. Breaking of Bread (Communion) Only those who have been baptized can take part in communion. Participation in Communion is a remembrance of Christ's body and blood; the real body and blood of Christ is not present in the sacrament.
  4. Separation from Evil The community of Christians shall have no association with those who remain in disobedience and a spirit of rebellion against God. There can be no fellowship with the wicked in the world; there can be no participation in works, church services, meetings and civil affairs of those who live in contradiction to the commands of God (Catholics and Protestants). All evil must be resisted including their weapons of force such as the sword and armor.
  5. Pastors in the Church Pastors should be men of good repute. Some of the responsibilities they must faithfully carry out are teaching, disciplining, the ban, leading in prayer, and the sacraments. They are to be supported by the church, but must also be disciplined if they sin.
  6. The Sword (Christian pacifism) – nonresistance Violence must not be used in any circumstance. The way of nonviolence is patterned after the example of Christ who never exhibited violence in the face of persecution or as a punishment for sin. A Christian should not pass judgment in worldly disputes. It is not appropriate for a Christian to serve as a magistrate; a magistrate acts according to the rules of the world, not according to the rules of heaven; their weapons are worldly, but the weapons of a Christian are spiritual.
  7. No (oaths) should be taken because Jesus prohibited the taking of oaths and swearing. Testifying is not the same thing as swearing. When a person bears testimony, they are testifying about the present, whether it be good or evil.

1528 The Theses of Berne Reformed Adopted in 1528 as the guiding principals of the Swiss Reformation. We see in this story the interaction of the Nobility and the Church. This is difference from what we would expect in our modern day of separation of Church and State.
1529 Luther's Long and Short Catechism


Short Catechism reviews the Ten Commandments, the Apostles' Creed, the Lord's Prayer, the Sacrament of Holy Baptism, the Office of the Keys and Confession and the Sacrament of the Eucharist.

Luther's Long Catechism is divided into five parts: The Ten Commandments, The Apostles' Creed, The Lord's Prayer, Holy Baptism, and The Sacrament of the Eucharist.

(see Catechism)

1530 The Augsburg Confession


The Augsburg Confession, also known as the Augustan Confession or the Augustana from its Latin name, Confessio Augustana, is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Church and one of the most important documents of the Protestant Reformation. The Augsburg Confession was written in both German and Latin and was presented by a number of German rulers and free-cities (those that were self governing) at the Diet of Augsburg on 25 June 1530.

The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V had called on the Princes and Free Territories in Germany to explain their religious convictions in an attempt to restore religious and political unity in the Holy Roman Empire and rally their support against the Turkish (Muslim) invasion. (

1530 Tetrapolitan Confession


The Tetrapolitan Confession, also called the Confessio Tetrapolitana, Strasbourg Confession, or Swabian Confession, was the official confession of the followers of Huldrych Zwingli and the first confession of the reformed church. "Tetrapolitan", from the Greek "Tetra", meaning "four", and "Politan", meaning "city." They cities were: Strasbourg, Konstanz, Memmingen, and Lindau.

1534 First Confession of Basel Reformed Basel is a city in northwestern Switzerland. This confession is a act of the town council. It was an attempt to bring into line with the reforming party both those who still inclined to the old faith and the Anabaptist section, its publication provoked a good deal of controversy, especially on its statements concerning the Eucharist. Up to the year 1826 the Confession (sometimes also known as the Confession of Mühlhausen from its adoption by that town) was publicly read from the pulpits of Basel on the Wednesday of Passion week in each year. In 1872 a resolution of the great council of the city practically annulled it. (wikipedia)
1536 Helvetic Confessions Reformed

The Helvetic Confessions are two documents expressing the common belief of the Reformed churches of Switzerland.

The First Helvetic Confession (Latin: Confessio Helvetica prior), known also as the Second Confession of Basel, was drawn up in Basel in 1536 by Heinrich Bullinger and Leo Jud of Zürich, Kaspar Megander [de] of Bern, Oswald Myconius and Simon Grynaeus of Basel, Martin Bucer and Wolfgang Capito of Strasbourg, with other representatives from Schaffhausen, St Gall, Mühlhausen and Biel. The first draft was written in Latin and the Zürich delegates objected to its Lutheranphraseology. However, Leo Jud's German translation was accepted by all, and after Myconius and Grynaeus had modified the Latin form, both versions were agreed to and adopted on February 26, 1536.

1548 Consensus of Zurich   The Consensus of Zurich or Latin Consensus Tigurinus was a document intended to bring unity to the Protestant churches on their doctrines of the sacraments, Lord's Supper. John Calvin, who stood in between the Lutheran view of Real Presence and the Zwinglian view of pure symbolism, wrote the first draft of the document in November 1548, with notes by Heinrich Bullinger. (
1559 French Confession of Faith Reformed 

The French Confession of Faith (1559) or Confession de La Rochelle or Gallic Confession of Faith or La Rochelle Confession of Faith is a Reformed confession of faith.

Under the auspices of Geneva, a center of the Reformation, a church was organized in Paris in 1555 with a formal organization and regular services. Soon after other churches sprang up elsewhere in France. Its history begins with the statement of faith sent by the Reformed churches of France to John Calvin in 1557 during a period of persecution. Working from this, and probably with the help of Theodore Beza and Pierre Viret, Calvin and his pupil De Chandieu wrote a confession for them in the form of thirty-five articles. When persecution subsided, twenty delegates representing seventy-two churches met secretly in Paris from 23 to 27 May 1559. With François de Morel as moderator, the brethren produced a Constitution of Ecclesiastical Discipline and a Confession of Faith: Calvin's thirty-five articles were all used in the confession, apart from the first two which were expanded into six. Thus the Gallic Confession had forty articles.

In 1560 the confession was presented to Francis II with a preface requesting that persecution should cease. The confession was confirmed at the seventh national synod of the French churches at La Rochelle in 1571, and recognized by German synods at Wesel in 1568 and Emden in 1571. (wikipedia)

1560 Scots Confession Reformed

The Scots' Confession was written in 1560 at the direction of the Scottish parliament.

A bitter struggle had erupted between the supporters of the Roman Catholic Church led by the Queen Regent Mary of Guise and those who embraced the Reformation. Catholicism was disparagingly referred to as Papism. Mary had adamantly opposed all attempts at reformation of the church in Scotland. When Mary died in 1560, Protestant leaders petitioned the Scottish parliament to take action. John Knox, the leader of the Reformation in Scotland, and five other ministers drew up the Scots' Confession in four days, which was promptly ratified by the Parliament. Its central doctrines are those of election (predestination) and the nature of the Church.

1561 Belgic Confession Reformed The Belgic Confession, written in 1561, owes its origin to the need for a clear and comprehensive statement of Reformed faith during the time of the Spanish inquisition in the Lowlands. Guido de Brès, its primary author, was pleading for understanding and toleration from King Philip II of Spain who was determined to root out all Protestant factions in his jurisdiction. Hence, this confession takes pains to point out the continuity of Reformed belief with that of the ancient Christian creeds, as well as to differentiate it from Catholic belief (on the one hand), and from Anabaptist teachings (on the other).
1563 Heidelberg Catechism Reformed The Heidelberg Catechism, written in 1563, originated in one of the few pockets of Calvinistic faith in the Lutheran and Catholic territories of Germany. Conceived originally as a teaching instrument to promote religious unity in the Palatinate, the catechism soon became a guide for preaching as well. It is a remarkably warm-hearted and personalized confession of faith, eminently deserving of its popularity among Reformed churches to the present day.
1571 The Thirty-Nine Articles Anglican

The defining articles of the Church of England. Went through many revisions from the Excomunication of Henery VIII in 1533. There were at least 5 predicessors to the 39 Articles, they include:

  1. Ten Articles (1536)
  2. Bishops' Book (1537)
  3. Six Articles (1539)
  4. King's Book (1543)
  5. Forty-two Articles (1553)
1595 Lambeth Articles Anglican

The Lambeth Articles (also known as the Nine Articles) were drafted by William Whitaker, Regius Professor of Divinity at Cambridge under the direction of the Archbishop of Canterbury John Whitgift. Many think that they were meant more for discussion than a final product.

  1. The eternal election of some to life, and the reprobation of others to death.
  2. The moving cause of predestination to life is not the foreknowledge of faith and good works, but only the good pleasure of God.
  3. The number of the elect is unalterably fixed.
  4. Those who are not predestinated to life shall necessarily be damned for their sins.
  5. The true faith of the elect never fails finally nor totally.
  6. A true believer, or one furnished with justifying faith, has a full assurance and certainty of remission and everlasting salvation in Christ.
  7. Saving grace is not communicated to all men.
  8. No man can come to the Son unless the Father shall draw him, but all men are not drawn by the Father.
  9. It is not in every one's will and power to be saved.

1610 Remonstrance Arminian

Remonstrance means "a forcefully reproachful protest."

The Five Articles of Remonstrance were theological propositions advanced in 1610 by followers of Jacobus Arminius who had died in 1609, in disagreement with interpretations of the teaching of John Calvin then current in the Dutch Reformed Church. Those who supported them chose to call themselves "Remonstrants". 

The five points of the Remonstrance asserted that:

  1. election (and condemnation on the day of judgment) was conditioned by the rational faith or nonfaith of man;
  2. the Atonement, while qualitatively adequate for all men, was efficacious only for the man of faith;
  3. unaided by the Holy Spirit, no person is able to respond to God's will;
  4. grace is not irresistible; and
  5. believers are able to resist sin but are not beyond the possibility of falling from grace.

The crux of Remonstrant Arminianism lay in the assertion that human dignity requires an unimpaired freedom of the will.

1618 - 1619 Canons of Dort Reformed

The Synod of Dort, a city the Western Netherlands, was convened in response to the Remonstrance of 1610 it produced what became known as the Canons of Dort. These became what we now call the five points of Calvinism:

  1. total depravity,
  2. unconditional election,
  3. limited atonement (arguing that Christ's atoning work was intended only for the elect and not for the rest of the world),
  4. irresistible (or irrevocable) grace, and the
  5. perseverance of the saints.

These were in response to the Remonstrance of 1610.

1615 The Irish Articles of Religion.  

The Irish Articles of Religion were probably composed by James Ussher, then Professor of Divinity in Dublin, and adopted by the Archbishops, Bishops, and Convocation of the Irish Episcopal Church, and approved by the Viceroy in 1615. This was four years before the Synod of Dort yet they show the prevailing Calvinism of the leading divines in that Church, which had previously been expressed also in the nine Lambeth Articles.

As the Church of Ireland is part of the Anglican Communion the Irish Articles have been superseded by the Thirty-nine Articles of the Anglican Church

1618 The Belgic Confession Reformed

Thr Belgic Confession, from the Latin Confessio Belgica is the primary confession of the Reformed Church in America. Belgica referred to the whole of the Netherlands, both north and south, which today is divided into the Netherlands and Belgium.

The confession's chief author was Guido de Brès, a preacher of the Reformed churches of the Netherlands, who died a martyr to the faith in the year 1567.

1618 - 1619 Three Forms of Unity Reformed The Three Forms of Unity is the collective name given to the the Belgic Confession, the Canons of Dort, and the Heidelberg Catechism. Together these reflect the doctrinal distinctive of what we often call Calvinism today. Calvin died in 1564 so much of it is later than Calvin himself. Nonetheless these were  accepted as official statements of doctrine by many of the Reformed churches at the time.
1618 - 1638

The Thirty Years War

When Emperor Ferdinand II, a devout Catholic, came to power in the Holy Roman Empire, He decreed that all of his realm would be Roman Catholic. Being as it was 100 years into the reformation and earlier skirmishes had been settled with treaties that allowed local princes to determine the religions in their realm, things deteriorated, OK, got really bad for 30 years.


The Dordrecht Confession


The most influential of all Mennonite confessions was adopted at Dordrecht on April 21, 1632, at a peace conference of Flemish and Frisian ministers. Representation at this conference was large enough to draw a protest against "this extraordinary gathering of Anabaptists from all provinces" from the Reformed clergy.

The confession is still owned by the "Mennonite Church" and other conservative Mennonite bodies of America. Its chief significance to American Mennonites is "its value as a symbol of the Mennonite heritage of faith and way of life."

1643-1649  Westminster Standards Anglican The collective name for the documents drawn up by the Westminster Assembly (1643–49). These include:

the Westminster Confession of Faith,

the Westminster Shorter Catechism,

the Westminster Larger Catechism,

the Directory of Public Worship, and

the Form of Church Government

1644 Baptist Confession of Faith Baptist The 1644 Baptist Confession of Faith, also called the First London Baptist Confession, was written by Particular Baptists, although they address themselves as "churches of Christ in London, which are commonly, but unjustly called Anabaptist." These churches held to a Calvinistic Soteriology in England to give a formal expression of their Christian faith from a Baptist perspective. The writers were concerned that their particular church organisation reflect what they perceived to be biblical teaching. The 1644 confession was revised in 1646. Among those that use this confession, the revised version is more commonly used than the original version.
1646 Cambridge Platform   The Cambridge Platform is a statement describing the system of church government in the Congregational churches of colonial New England. It was written in 1648 in response to Presbyterian criticism and in time became regarded as the religious constitution of Massachusetts. The platform explained and defended congregational polity as practiced in New England and also endorsed most of the Westminster Confession of Faith. The document was shaped most directly by the thinking of Puritan ministers Richard Mather and John Cotton.
1658 Savoy Declaration   Adaptation of Westminster confession by English Congregationalists
1560 Scots Confession  

The Scots Confession (also called the Scots Confession of 1560) is a Confession of Faith written in 1560 by six leaders of the Protestant Reformation in Scotland. The text of the Confession was the first subordinate standard for the Protestant church in Scotland. Along with the Book of Discipline and the Book of Common Order, this is considered to be a formational document for the Church of Scotland during the time.

In August 1560 the Parliament of Scotland agreed to reform the religion of the country. To enable them to decide what the Reformed Faith was to be, they set John Knox as the superintendent over John Winram, John Spottiswoode, John Willock, John Douglas, and John Row, to prepare a Confession of Faith. This they did in four days. The 25 Chapters of the Confession spell out a contemporary statement of the Christian faith as understood by the followers of John Calvin during his lifetime. Although the Confession and its accompanying documents were the product of the joint effort of the Six Johns, its authorship is customarily attributed to John Knox.

While the Parliament approved the Confession on 27 August 1560, acting outside the terms of the Treaty of Edinburgh to do so, Mary, Queen of Scots, a Roman Catholic, refused to agree, and the Confession was not approved by the monarch until 1567, after Mary's overthrow.

1675 Helvetic Consensus Reformed Formula Consensus Helvetica, or the Helvitic Consensus is a confession of faith drawn up in 1675 by J. G. Heidegger at the request of the Calvinistic divines of Switzerland. It was chiefly designed to restrain the progress of the mitigated Calvinism of Amyraldus and the school of Saumur generally. Moise Amyraut, professor at Saumur, taught that the atonement of Jesus was hypothetically universal rather than particular and definite. His colleague, Louis Cappel, denied the verbal inspiration of the Hebrew text of the Old Testament, and Josué de la Place rejected the immediate imputation of Adam's sin as arbitrary and unjust.;
1689 Second London Baptist Confession Baptist Baptists of England adaptation of the Savoy Declaration
      English Presbyterians, Congregationalists, and Baptists would together (with others) come to be known as Nonconformists, because they did not conform to the Act of Uniformity (1662) establishing the Church of England as the only legally approved church, though they were in many ways united by their common confessions, built on the Westminster Confession.
1708 Saybrook Platform Congregational The Saybrook Platform was a new constitution for the Congregational church in Connecticut. Religious and civic leaders in Connecticut around 1700 were distressed by the colony-wide decline in personal religious piety and in church discipline. The colonial legislature took action by calling 12 ministers and four laymen to meet in Saybrook, Connecticut; eight were Yale trustees. They prepared fifteen articles that theologically put the church in the Westminister theological tradition. It rejected extreme localism or "congregationalism" that had been inherited from England, replacing it with a centralized system similar to what the Presbyterians had.
1833 New Hampshire Confession of Faith Baptist New Hampshire Confession of Faith was drawn up by the Rev. John Newton Brown of New Hampshire, and was adopted by the New Hampshire Baptist Convention. It was widely accepted by Baptists, especially in the Northern and Western States, as a clear and concise statement of their faith. They considered it in harmony with, but in a milder form than, the doctrines of older confessions which expressed the Calvinistic Baptist beliefs that existed at the time.
1905 Conclusions of Utrecht Reformed

The Conclusions of the Synod of Utrecht were the result of a 1905 synod of the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands. The debate surrounds the notion of election and the order of the decreees of God.

Lapsarian is an adjective that refers to the fall of man, it is from the Latin lapsus ("fall") +‎ -arian ("believer, advocate"). Infra means further on and supra means before. 

They included authoritative pronouncements on these disputed points:

  • Infralapsarian/Supralapsarian - Did God condem people before they were created?
  • justification from eternity - Were the elect selected in eternity past?
  • mediate/immediate regeneration - When is the heart regenerated?
  • presumptive regeneration - the notion that parents should baptize their children based on a presumption of the child's being regenerate. This is against the Anabaptist notion of what we now call believers' baptism.

1913 Kansas City Statement of Faith Congregational The Kansas City Statement of Faith is a confession of faith adopted by the National Council of the Congregational Churches of the United States at Kansas City, Missouri. This concise statement of Congregational beliefs restates traditional congregational polity and endorses ecumenism, while also formalizing the drift from Reformed theology that had occurred in American Congregationalism.
1966 Baptist Affirmation of Faith Baptist

The Baptist Affirmation of Faith 1966 also known as the Strict Baptist Affirmation of Faith 1966, is a confession of faith which was drawn up by the Strict Baptist Assembly in London on May 21, 1966. The Grace Baptist Assembly, which has succeeded the Strict Baptist Assembly, also commends this affirmation to the churches for their help and benefit.

The Strict Baptists churches (now the Grace Baptist churches) are churches that have largely stood in the Reformed Baptist tradition, many of whom hold to the historic confession the 1689 Baptist Confession of Faith. However, they would also hold to the practice of strict communion, which is more explicitly mentioned in the 1966 Affirmation.
1967 Confession of 1967 Presbyterian One of the confession of faith of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), PC(USA). It was written as a modern statement of the faith for the United Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (UPCUSA), the "northern church", to supplement the Westminster Confession and the other statements of faith in its new Book of Confessions.
1934 Barmen Declaration  

The Barmen Declaration or the Theological Declaration of Barmen 1934 (Die Barmer Theologische Erklärung) was a document adopted by Christians in Nazi Germany who opposed the Deutsche Christen (German Christian) movement. In the view of the delegates to the Synod that met in the city of Barmen in May, 1934, the German Christians had corrupted church government by making it subservient to the state and had introduced Nazi ideology into the German Protestant churches that contradicted the Christian gospel.

The Barmen Declaration includes six theses:

  1. The source of revelation is only the Word of God — Jesus Christ. Any other possible sources (earthly powers, for example) will not be accepted.
  2. Jesus Christ is the only Lord of all aspects of personal life. There should be no other authority.
  3. The message and order of the church should not be influenced by the current political convictions.
  4. The church should not be ruled by a leader ("Führer"). There is no hierarchy in the church (Mt 20, 25f).
  5. The state should not fulfill the task of the church and vice versa. State and church are both limited to their own business.
  6. Therefore, the Barmen Declaration rejects (i) the subordination of the Church to the state (8.22–3) and (ii) the subordination of the Word and Spirit to the Church.

1982 Belhar Confession Dutch Reformed  The Belhar Confession (Afrikaans: Belydenis van Belhar) is a Christian statement of belief written in Afrikaans in 1982. It was adopted (after a slight adjustment) as a confession of faith by the Dutch Reformed Mission Church (DRMC) in South Africa in 1986.
1983 Book of Confessions Presbyterian Collection of creeds and confessions of the Presbyterian Church first published in 1983 and since revised several times.

It contains: the Nicene Creed, the Apostles' Creed, the Scots Confession, the Heidelberg Catechism, the Second Helvetic Confession, the Westminster Confession of Faith, the Shorter Catechism, the Larger Catechism, the Theological Declaration of Barmen, the Confession of 1967, the Confession of Belhar, and the Brief Statement of Faith. 1/5/19 1/5/19 2/15/19