Conflicts between the
Jews and Rome



Date Event Comment
63 BC Roman general Pompey subdued Judaea Judea becomes a client kingdom
6 Augustus deposed king Archelaus and his governor of Syria Quirinius, established the province of Judaea (which became a prefecture)
66-70 The Great Revolt This rebellion led to the destruction of the Temple (September 70); this war was described by Flavius Josephus in his Jewish War
74   the Romans took the fortress Masada
115-117 the Levantine Jews revolted against emperor Trajan Hadrian forbade circumcision, Simon bar Kochba started a Messianic war, which lasted until 136. It meant the end of the multiform Judaism of the first century.
351-352 Jewish revolt, directed against Constantius Gallus, is put down.

358 Because of the increasing danger of Roman persecution, Hillel II creates a mathematical calendar for calculating the Jewish month. After adopting the calendar, the Sanhedrin in Tiberias is dissolved. Prior to this time the feasts and months were determined by observation and declared by the Sanhedrin.
361363 The last pagan Roman Emperor, Julian, allows the Jews to return to "holy Jerusalem which you have for many years longed to see rebuilt" and to rebuild the Second Temple. Shortly after, the Emperor is assassinated, and the plan is dissolved.